Reference: CPG 5800/6830
Incipit: Παρθενικὴ πανήγυρις σήμερον τὴν γλῶτταν
Date: 24 December 428 1
Greek Text: ACO 1.1.1:103-107
Latin Text: PL 48:777-781 PL 56:1140-1146
Other Ancient Versions: Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopian, Georgian, and Old Russian (CPG 3:133)
English Translation: FCC: G. Thompson and N. Constas, Proclus of Constantinople,2 137-147

This sermon helped to spark the larger controversy over the proper way to describe Christ’s incarnation and two natures. It appears to have been preached during the Christmas festival, in the cathedral church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. Present, sitting in his episcopal cathedra, was Nestorius, who had been installed some eight months earlier (10 April 428) into the office of bishop/patriarch of Constantinople. Some days after Proclus’s sermon, Nestorius preached a public “rebuttal” in a sermon of his own (CPG 5716/8631). From there the controversy quickly spun out of control. For a complete analysis of Proclus’ sermon, see the introduction (pp. 128-135), notes and commentary (pp. 148-156) of M. Constas. When this sermon was preached, Proclus had been appointed bishop of Cyzicus, but unrest in the church there had prevented him from occupying the see. Later he would himself serve as patriarch of Constantinople (434-446).

The Greek text below is adapted from ACO 1.1.1:103-107 and the Latin text from Migne, PL 48:777-781. The latter is seemingly a translation by Marius Mercator [d. 451]); PL 56:1140-1146 gives a second version, seemingly of the same translation, with a few variations. The text in brackets uses the PL 56 text to fill in a few lacunae. The English translation is an adaptation by G. Thompson of the translation of Constas, with the author’s kind permission. Pages 126-146 of his volume gives the ACO Greek text on even pages and the English text on the odd pages. Constas in turn bases his translation on that of M. Wiles and M. Santer, Documents in Early Christian Thought (Cambridge, 1975):61-66.

Ὁμιλία Πρόκλου ἐπισκόπου Κυζίκου λεχθεῖσα καθεζομένου Νεστορίου ἐν τῇ μεγάλῃ ἐκκλησίᾳ Κωνσταντινουπόλεως. A sermon of Proclus, bishop of Cyzicus, preached in the cathedral church of Constantinople while [bishop] Nestorius was present. Homilia Procli, episcopi Cyzici, habita sedente Nestorio in magna ecclesia Constantinopolis.
1. Παρθενικὴ πανήγυρις σήμερον τὴν γλῶτταν, ἀδελφοί, πρὸς εὐφημίαν καλεῖ καὶ ἣ παροῦσα ἑορτὴ τοῖς συνελθοῦσιν ὠφελείας γίνεται πρόξενος. καὶ μάλα εἰκότως· ἁγνείας γὰρ ἔχει ὑπόθεσιν, καὶ τοῦ γένους τῶν γυναικῶν καύχημα τὸ τελούμενον καὶ δόξα τοῦ θήλεος διὰ τὴν ἐν καιρῷ μητέρα καὶ παρθένον. ἐπέραστος ἡ σύνοδος· 1. Brothers, the festival of the virgin today calls us to words of praise, and the present festival will confer benefits on those of you gathered to observe it. Surely this is proper, for its subject is purity. We are celebrating what is the boast of women and the glory of the female sex—the person who was at once both mother and virgin. What a lovely gathering! 1. Virginalis hodie solemnitas linguam nostram, fratres, in praeconium uocat, et praesens festiuitas his, qui conuenerunt, quasi prouisor utilitatis efficitur, et ualde competenter. Castitatis enim habet materiam, et feminei gloriam sexus, propter eam quae in tempore mater est, et semper uirgo. [O quam concupiscibilis congregatio!]
2. ἰδοὺ γὰρ γῆ καὶ θάλαττα δορυφορεῖ τῇ παρθένῳ, ἡ μὲν τὰ νῶτα ταῖς ὁλκάσιν γαληνῶς ὑφαπλώσασα, ἡ δὲ τὰ ἴχνη τῶν βαδιζόντων ἀκωλύτως παραπέμπουσα. σκιρτάτω ἡ φύσις, καὶ γυναῖκες τιμῶνται· χορευέτω ἡ ἀνθρωπότης, καὶ παρθένοι δοξάζονται. ὅπου γὰρ “ἐπλεόνασεν ἡ ἁμαρτία, ὑπερεπερίσσευσεν ἡ χάρις.” 2. Look how both the earth and the sea stand guard over the virgin: one spreads out her waves calmly beneath the ships; the other leads the travelers’ steps unimpeded on their way. Let nature leap for joy, and let women be honored! Let all humanity dance, and let virgins be glorified! For “where sin increased, grace abounded even more” [Rom. 5:20]. 2. Ecce enim et terra et mare munera uirgini offerunt: illud quidem fluctibus dorsum suum tranquille substernens; haec autem gradientium sine impedimento dirigens uestigia. Gaudeat natura, mulieres honorentur, choros ducat humanitas, glorificentur uirgines: “Ubi enim abundauit peccatum, superabundauit gratia.”
συνεκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς ἡ ἁγία Μαρία, τὸ ἀμόλυντον τῆς παρθενίας κειμήλιον, ὁ λογικὸς τοῦ δευτέρου Ἀδὰμ παράδεισος, τὸ ἐργαστήριον τῆς ἑνότητος τῶν φύσεων, ἡ πανήγυρις τοῦ σωτηρίου συναλλάγματος, ἡ παστὰς ἐν ᾗ ὁ λόγος ἐνυμφεύσατο τὴν σάρκα, ἡ ἔμψυχος τῆς φύσεως βάτος, ἣν τὸ τῆς θείας ὠδῖνος πῦρ οὐ κατέκαυσεν, ἡ ὄντως κούφη νεφέλη ἡ τὸν ἐπὶ τῶν χερουβὶμ μετὰ σώματος βαστάσασα, ὁ τοῦ ἐξ οὐρανῶν ὑετοῦ καθαρώτατος πόκος ἐξ οὗ ὁ ποιμὴν τὸ πρόβατον ἐνεδύσατο, … Holy Mary has called us together; the undefiled vessel of virginity; the spiritual paradise of the second Adam; the workshop for the union of natures; the celebration of the covenant of salvation; the bridal chamber in which the Word took the flesh in marriage; the living bush of human nature which the fire of the divine birth-pang did not consume; the veritable swift cloud who carried in her body the one who rides upon the cherubim; the purest fleece drenched with the rain which came down from heaven with which the shepherd clothed himself as a sheep; … Conuocauit nos beata Maria, immaculatum uirginitatis uas, rationalis secundi Adam paradisus, opificium unitionis naturarum, solemnitas salubris commutationis, [thalamus in quo uerbum desponsatum est carne animatum, naturae] rubus quem diuini partus ignis non combussit, uere leuis nubes, quae eum, qui supra cherubim est, cum corpore portauit. O coelestis imbris purissimum uellus, ex quo pastor oue indutus est!
3. ἡ δούλη καὶ μήτηρ, ἡ παρθένος καὶ οὐρανός, ἡ μόνη θεῷ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους γέφυρα, ὁ φρικτὸς τῆς οἰκονομίας ἱστὸς ἐν ᾧ ἀρρήτως ὑφάνθη ὁ τῆς ἑνώσεως χιτών, οὗπερ ἱστουργὸς μὲν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, ἔριθος δὲ ἡ ἐξ ὕψους ἐπισκιάσασα δύναμις, ἔριον δὲ τὸ ἀρχαῖον τοῦ Ἀδὰμ κῴδιον, κρόκη δὲ ἡ ἐκ παρθένου ἀμόλυντος σάρξ, κερκὶς δὲ ἡ ἀμέτρητος τοῦ φορέσαντος χάρις, τεχνίτης δὲ ὁ δι᾿ ἀκοῆς εἰσπηδήσας λόγος. 3. handmaid and mother; virgin and heaven; the only bridge from God to mankind; the awesome loom of God’s divine plan upon which the robe of union was woven in an inexpressible way. The Holy Spirit operated the loom, the one who spun with overshadowing power from on high. The wool was the ancient fleece of Adam; the interwoven thread was the spotless flesh of the virgin. The weaver’s shuttle was propelled by the boundless grace of the one who wore the robe; the workman was the Word who entered through her sense of hearing. 3. Maria mater et ancilla, uirgo et coelum, solus dei ad homines pons, terribilis dispensationis tela, in qua ineffabilis incarnationis texta est tunica, cuius operis supertextor spiritus sanctus est; textrix, ex altissimis obumbrans uirtus; uestis autem, antiquum Adam indumentum; flocci, ex uirgine immaculata care; radius, immensurabilis induentis gratia; artifex quod per obedientiam insiluit uerbum.
Τίς εἶδεν, τίς ἤκουσεν ὅτι μήτραν ὁ θεὸς ἀπεριγράπτως ᾤκησεν; ὃν οὐρανὸς οὐκ ἐχώρησεν, γαστὴρ οὐκ ἐστενοχώρησεν, … Who has ever seen or heard that God could live in a woman’s womb, yet without being limited? Heaven itself cannot contain him, and yet a womb did not constrict him. Quis uidit, quis audiuit, quia uuluam deus incircumscriptus habitauit, et quem coelum non caperet, uenter uirginis cepit.
4. ἀλλ᾽ ἐγεννήθη ἐκ γυναικὸς θεὸς οὐ γυμνὸς καὶ ἄνθρωπος οὐ ψιλός, καὶ πύλην σωτηρίας ὁ τεχθεὶς τὴν πάλαι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἔδειξεν θύραν. ὅπου γὰρ ὁ ὄφις διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς τὸν ἰὸν ἐνέχεεν, ἐκεῖ ὁ λόγος διὰ τῆς ἀκοῆς εἰσελθὼν τὸν ναὸν ἐζωοπλάστησεν· ὅθεν ὁ πρῶτος μαθητὴς τῆς ἁμαρτίας Κάιν προέκυψεν, ἐκεῖθεν ὁ τοῦ γένους λυτρωτὴς Χριστὸς ἀσπόρως ἐβλάστησεν. 4. He was born from a woman—God but not merely so, also man but not only a man; by his birth he made what was once the door of sin into the gate of salvation. Just as the serpent had poured his poison in through disobedient ears, the Word entered through obedient ears to build a living temple. From the same place where Cain, the first disciple of sin, emerged, Christ, the redeemer of our race, also sprouted unsown into life. 4. Natus est ex muliere deus, sed non nudus; et natus est homo, sed non purus; et qui natus est ueteris peccati portam, portam salutis ostendit: ubi enim serpens per inobedientiam uenenum effudit uerbum per obedientiam ingrediens templum uiuifice plasmauit. Unde primus peccati discipulus Cain emersit, inde generis nostri liberator Christus sine semine pullulauit.
5. οὐκ ᾐσχύνθη ὁ φιλάνθρωπος τὴν ἐκ γυναικὸς ὠδῖνα· ζωὴ γὰρ ἦν τὸ πραγματευόμενον. οὐκ ἐμιάνθη οἰκήσας μόρια, ἅπερ αὐτὸς ἀνυβρίστως ἐδημιούργησεν. εἰ μὴ παρθένος ἔμεινεν ἡ μήτηρ, ψιλὸς ἄνθρωπος ὁ τεχθεὶς καὶ οὐ παράδοξος ὁ τόκος· εἰ δὲ καὶ μετὰ τόκον ἔμεινεν παρθένος, ἐκεῖνος ἀφράστως ἐγεννήθη ὁ καὶ τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων ἀκωλύτως εἰσελθών, οὗ τὴν συζυγίαν τῶν φύσεων ὁ Θωμᾶς ἀνακεκράγει λέγων “Ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου.” 5. The loving God was not ashamed of a woman’s birth pangs, for he was engaged in purchasing life. He was not defiled by dwelling in places which were not dishonorable when he himself created them. If the mother had not remained a virgin, then the child that was born to her would have been a mere man and the birth no miracle. But if she remained a virgin even after giving birth, then indeed he was wondrously born who also entered unhindered through locked doors, and whose united natures were proclaimed by Thomas when he said, “My Lord and my God!” [John 20:28]. 5. Non erubuit amator hominum muliebres partus, uitae enim erat negotiatio quae agebatur. Non coinquinatus est habitans uiscera, quae ipse sine contumelia condiderat. Si non uirgo mansit mater, purus est homo qui natus est, et non exstitit mirabilis partus; si autem et post partum uirgo permansit, ille ineffabiliter ex ea natus est, qui sine prohibitione ianuis clausis ingressus est, cuius coniunctionem naturarum agnoscens Thomas, exclamauit dicens: “Dominus meus et deus meus.”
6. Μὴ ἐπαισχυνθῇς τὴν ὠδῖνα, ὦ ἄνθρωπε· αὕτη γὰρ ἡμῖν γέγονε σωτηρίας ἀφορμή. εἰ μὴ ἐκ γυναικὸς ἐγεννήθη, οὐκ ἂν ἀπέθανεν· εἰ μὴ ἀπέθανεν, οὐκ ἂν “διὰ τοῦ θανάτου κατήργησεν τὸν τὸ κράτος ἔχοντα τοῦ θανάτου, τουτέστι τὸν διάβολον.” οὐχ ὕβρις ἀρχιτέκτονι μεῖναι ἐν οἷς ᾠκοδόμησεν, οὐ μιαίνει πηλὸς τὸν κεραμέα ἀνακαινίζοντα ὅπερ ἔπλασεν· οὕτως οὐδὲ μιαίνει τὸν ἄχραντον τὸ ἐκ παρθενικῆς γαστρὸς προελθεῖν. ἣν γὰρ πλάσσων οὐκ ἐμολύνθη, διὰ ταύτης προελθὼν οὐκ ἐμιάνθη. 6. So do not be ashamed of the birth pangs, O human! For that is how our salvation began. Had he not been born of a woman, he would not have died. If he had not died, he would not “have destroyed through death the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil” [Heb. 2:14]. A master builder is not dishonored by living in buildings that he has himself designed. Clay does not defile the potter who repairs what he himself had formed. Neither was the pure one defiled by coming forth from a virgin’s womb. Since he was formed without being polluted, he came forth undefiled. 6. Non erubescas, o homo, partum, ipse enim nobis factus est occasio salutis. Si non ex muliere nasceretur, nequaquam moreretur; si non moreretur, nequaquam “per mortem destrueret eum qui habet mortis imperium, id est, diabolum.” Non est iniuria architecto manere in his quae ipse aedificauit; non coinquinat figulum lutum renouantem, quod plasmauerat: sic non coinquinat incontaminabilem ex uirginis uentre procedere; quam enim dum plasmaret, non coinquinatus est, per eam transiens non pollutus est.
7. ὦ γαστὴρ ἐν ᾗ τὸ τῆς κοινῆς ἐλευθερίας γραμματεῖον συνετάγη· ὦ κοιλία ἐν ᾗ τὸ κατὰ τοῦ θανάτου ὅπλον ἐχαλκεύθη· ὦ ἄρουρα ἐν ᾗ ὁ τῆς φύσεως γεωργὸς Χριστὸς ὡς στάχυς ἀσπόρως ἐβλάστησεν· ὦ ναὸς ἐν ᾧ ὁ θεὸς γέγονεν ἱερεύς, οὐ τὴν φύσιν μεταβαλών, ἀλλὰ τὸν “κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδὲκ” δι᾿ οἶκτον ἐνδυσάμενος. 7. O womb, in which he arranged the account book that gave us all liberty! O belly, in which was forged the weapon that defeated death! O field, in which Christ, nature’s farmer, himself sprouted forth unsown as a stalk of grain! O temple, in which God became a priest, not by changing his nature, but out of compassion clothing himself with the one who was “according to the order of Melchizedek!” [Heb. 6:20]. 7. O utere, in quo communis libertatis cautio composita est! O uenter, in quo contra mortem fabricata sunt arma! O area, in qua naturae agricola Christus, sicut spica, sine semine pullulauit! O templum, in quo deus factus est sacerdos, non naturam commutans, sed eum, qui “secundum ordinem est Melchisedech,” propter miserationem indutus est!
8. “Ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο,” κἂν Ἰουδαῖοι ἀπιστῶσιν εἰπόντι τῷ κυρίῳ· ὁ θεὸς μορφὴν ἀνθρώπου ἐφόρεσεν, κἂν Ἕλληνες κωμῳδῶσι τὸ θαῦμα. διὰ γὰρ τοῦτο “Ἰουδαίοις μὲν σκάνδαλον, ἔθνεσιν δὲ μωρία” τὸ μυστήριον, ἐπειδὴ ὑπὲρ λόγον τὸ θαῦμα. εἰ μὴ ὁ λόγος ᾤκησεν γαστέρα, οὐκ ἂν ἐκαθέσθη ἡ σὰρξ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου· εἰ τῷ θεῷ ὕβρις εἰς μήτραν εἰσελθεῖν, [ἄρα] καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις ὕβρις ἀνθρώπῳ διακονεῖν. 8. “The Word became flesh” [John 1:14], even if the Jews disbelieve the Lord who said so. God was clothed with the form of a human being, even if the Greeks ridicule the wonder. For this reason, the mystery is “a scandal to the Jews and folly to the Greeks” [1 Cor. 1:23], for the miracle transcends reason. If the Word had not lived in a womb, then the flesh would never have taken his seat on the throne. If it were a disgrace for God to have entered a womb, it would also have been a disgrace for angels to provide care for a man. 8. “Verbum caro factum est,” etsi Iudaei non credunt partum. Deus hominis formam indutus est, etsi pagani detrahunt miraculo: propter hoc enim “et Iudaeis scandalum, et gentibus stultitia” est mysterium, quia ultra rationem est miraculum. Si non uerbum habitasset in utero, nequaquam caro sederet super thronum. Si deo iniuria fuisset in uuluam ingredi, et angelis iniuria esset hominibus ministrare.
9. Ὁ οὖν κατὰ φύσιν ἀπαθὴς γέγονε δι᾿ οἶκτον πολυπαθής. οὐκ ἐκ προκοπῆς γέγονε θεὸς ὁ Χριστός, μὴ γένοιτο, ἀλλὰ δι᾽ οἶκτον γέγονεν ἄνθρωπος, ὡς πιστεύομεν. οὐκ ἄνθρωπον ἀποθεωθέντα κηρύττομεν, ἀλλὰ θεὸν σαρκωθέντα ὁμολογοῦμεν. τὴν οἰκείαν δούλην ἐπεγράψατο μητέρα ὁ κατ᾽ οὐσίαν ἀμήτωρ καὶ κατ᾽ οἰκονομίαν ἀπάτωρ. ἐπεὶ πῶς ὁ αὐτὸς κατὰ Παῦλον “ἀμήτωρ” καὶ “ἀπάτωρ;” εἰ ψιλὸς ἄνθρωπος, οὐκ ἀμήτωρ· ἔχει γὰρ μητέρα. εἰ γυμνὸς θεός, οὐκ ἀπάτωρ· ἔχει γὰρ πατέρα. νῦν δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς ἀμήτωρ μὲν ὡς πλάστης, ἀπάτωρ δὲ ὡς πλάσμα. 9. So he who is impassible by nature out of his mercy became extremely passible.3 Christ did not through his own development become God—heaven forbid! Instead out of his mercy he became man, as we believe. We do not preach a man becoming God, but instead we confess God becoming man. He acknowledged his own female servant to be his mother, he who according to his essence is without mother and who in his incarnation is without father. How else could Paul say that this same person was both “without mother” and “without father” [Heb. 7:3]? If he were only a man, he would not be without mother, yet he has a mother. If he were solely God, he would not be without father, yet he has a Father. But now the same one is both without mother as creator, and without father as creature. 9. Qui est secundam naturam, utpote deus, ΑΠΑΘΟΣ, propter misericordiam factus est ΠΟΛΥΠΑΘΗΣ. Non est prouectu factus est deus Christus, absit, sed propter miserationem, quemadmodum credimus, factus est homo. Non hominem deificatum praedicamus, sed deum incarnatum confitemur. Propriam ancillam conscripsit matrem. Qui secundum essentiam sine matre est, est secundum dispensationem sine patre: nam quomodo ipse, secundum Paulum, “sine patre” et “sine matre” est? Si purus homo est, non est sine matre; si nudus deus est, non est sine patre: nunc autem idem ipse est, sine matre quidem ut plasmator; sine patre autem, ut plasmatus.
10. Αἰδέσθητι κἂν τὴν προσηγορίαν τοῦ ἀρχαγγέλου. ὁ τὴν Μαριὰμ εὐαγγελισάμενος Γαβριὴλ ἐλέγετο. τί δὲ ἑρμηνεύεται Γαβριήλ; θεὸς καὶ ἄνθρωπος. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ εὐαγγελιζόμενος θεὸς καὶ ἄνθρωπος, προέλαβεν ἡ προσηγορία τὸ θαῦμα, ἵνα πιστώσηται τὴν οἰκονομίαν. 10. Pay attention also to the name of the archangel. The one who brought the good news to Mary was called Gabriel. What is the meaning of Gabriel? God and man. Now the one about whom Gabriel was bringing good news was God and man, and thus the angel’s name was an anticipation of the miracle, given to assure us of the divine plan. 10. Erubesce uel appellationem archangeli, o homo; qui Mariam euangelizauit, Gabriel dicitur. Quid autem interpretatur Gabriel? Deus et homo. [Ergo quia is qui ab ipso euangelizabatur, deus erat et homo,] praecessit appellatio, ut crederetur dispensatio.
11. μάθε τὴν αἰτίαν τῆς παρουσίας καὶ δόξασον τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ σαρκωθέντος. πολλὰ ὤφειλεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸ γένος καὶ πρὸς τὸ χρέος ἠπόρει. διὰ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ πάντες τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐχειρογραφήσαμεν· δούλους ἡμᾶς κατεῖχεν ὁ διάβολος· τὰς ὠνὰς ἡμῶν προέφερεν, χάρτῃ κεχρημένος τῷ πολυπαθεῖ σώματι. εἱστήκει ὁ κακὸς πλαστογράφος, ἐπισείων ἡμῖν τὸ χρέος καὶ ἀπαιτῶν ἡμᾶς τὴν δίκην. ἔδει τοίνυν δυοῖν θάτερον, ἢ πᾶσιν ἐπαχθῆναι τὸν ἐκ τῆς δίκης θάνατον, ἐπειδὴ καὶ “πάντες ἥμαρτον,” ἢ τοιοῦτον δοθῆναι πρὸς ἀντίδοσιν ᾧ πᾶν ὑπῆρχεν δικαίωμα πρὸς παραίτησιν. ἄνθρωπος μὲν οὖν σῶσαι οὐκ ἠδύνατο· ὑπέκειτο γὰρ τῷ χρέει. ἄγγελος ἐξαγοράσαι οὐκ ἴσχυεν· ἠπόρει γὰρ τοιούτου λύτρου. ἀναμάρτητος ὑπὲρ τῶν ἡμαρτηκότων ἀποθανεῖν ὤφειλεν· αὕτη γὰρ ἐλείπετο μόνη τοῦ κακοῦ ἡ λύσις. 11. Understand the reason for his coming and glorify the power of the one who became flesh. The human race was deep in debt and incapable of paying what it owed. Through Adam we all signed a confession of sin. The devil held us all in slavery. He kept producing our bills, using our suffering bodies as his parchment. There he stood, the wicked forger, threatening us with our debts and demanding satisfaction. One of two things had to happen: either the penalty of death had to be imposed on everyone, because “all had sinned” [Rom. 3:23], or else a substitute had to be provided who was fully entitled to plead on our behalf. No mere man could save us; he would have owed the debt as well. No angel could buy us out, for such a ransom was beyond his powers. One who was sinless had to die for those who had sinned; that was the only way left to free us from evil. 11. Disce causam praesentiae, et glorifica incarnati uirtutem. Multum debebat genus humanum, et deficiebat ad debitum. Per Adam omne peccatum conscripsimus, et seruos nos retinebat diabolus: instrumenta nostra proferebat, pro chartis utens multa patiente corpore: stabat malus passionum falsarius concutiens contra nos debitum, et postulans iudicium. Erat igitur necessarium alterum e duobus, aut importari ex iudicio mortem, quia “omnes peccauerunt;” aut talem dari in compensationem, qui totius repetitionis iustificatio existeret. Et homo quidem saluare non poterat, subiacebat enim debito: angelos redimere non ualebat, deficiebat enim in pretio liberationis; eum qui sine peccato erat pro peccatoribus mori oportebat: ipsa enim haec et sola relicta est mali solutio.
12. Τί οὖν; αὐτὸς ὁ πᾶσαν φύσιν εἰς τὸ εἶναι παραγαγών, ᾧ μηδὲν πρὸς παροχὴν ἄπορον, ἐξεῦρε τοῖς κατακρίτοις ζωὴν ἀσφαλεστάτην καὶ τῷ θανάτῳ λύσιν εὐπρεπεστάτην, καὶ γίνεται ἄνθρωπος ὡς οἶδεν αὐτός (λόγος γὰρ ἑρμηνεῦσαι τὸ θαῦμα οὐ δύναται), καὶ ἀποθνῄσκει ᾧ ἐγένετο, καὶ λυτροῦται ᾧ ὑπῆρχεν κατὰ Παῦλον τὸν λέγοντα “Ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων.” 12. What happened then? The very one who brought every creature into being, and who still never fails to provide, won life most secure for the condemned and a most fitting end for death. He became man in a way that he alone knows (for words cannot describe the miracle). By becoming a man, he was able to die; by being who he was, he was able to redeem. As Paul says, “In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses” [Eph. 1:7]. 12. Quid ergo? Ipse qui ex nihilo uniuersam naturam ut esset adduxerat, qui in nullo bonitatis dono deficiebat, adinuenit, et adiudicatis morti uitam certissimam, et morti solutionem decentissimam: fit enim homo, sicut nouit ipse (sermo enim interpretari miraculum non potest), et eo moritur, quod homo factus est; et eo liberat, quod prius exstiterat, secundum Paulum dicentem: “In quo habemus redemptionem, per sanguinem eius remissionem peccatorum.”
13. ὢ τῶν πραγμάτων· ἄλλοις ἐπραγματεύσατο τὸ ἀθάνατον, αὐτὸς γὰρ ὑπῆρχεν ἀθάνατος. τοιοῦτος γὰρ ἄλλος κατ᾽ οἰκονομίαν οὔτε ἦν οὔτε γέγονεν οὔτε ἔστιν οὔτε ἔσται ἢ μόνος ὁ ἐκ παρθένου τεχθεὶς θεὸς καὶ ἄνθρωπος, οὐκ ἀντιταλαντεύουσαν μόνον ἔχων τὴν ἀξίαν τῷ πλήθει τῶν ὑποδίκων, ἀλλὰ καὶ πάσαις ψήφοις ὑπερέχουσαν, ἐν μὲν τῷ υἱὸς εἶναι τὸ ἀπαράλλακτον σῴζων πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, ἐν δὲ τῷ δημιουργὸς τὸ τῆς δυνάμεως ἀπροσδεὲς ἔχων, ἐν δὲ τῷ φιλοικτίρμων τὸ εἰς συμπάθειαν ἀνυπέρβλητον δημοσιεύων, ἐν δὲ τῷ ἀρχιερεὺς τὸ πρὸς παραίτησιν ἀξιόπιστον φέρων, ὧν οὐδὲν εὕροι τις ἂν ἐπ᾿ οὐδενὶ ἴσον ἢ παραπλήσιον πώποτε. 13. O what deeds! It was for others that he procured immortality, for he himself was immortal. There neither was nor has been nor is nor will be another able to do this work, only he alone—the one born of a virgin, God and man. Such was his worthiness that in not only counterbalanced the multitude of the condemned, but also provided excess compensation for all the sentences given against them. For he was the Son, preserving his unchangeable likeness to the Father; the creator, possessed of unfailing power; the merciful, revealing his unsurpassable compassion; the high priest worthy to plead on our behalf. None of these qualities could ever be found in another, whether in equal or in similar degree. 13. O stupenda res! Aliis negotiatus est immortalitatem, ipse enim erat immortalis; talis enim alter secundum dispensationem, nec erat, nec factus est, nec est, nec erit, solus est qui ex uirgine natus est deus et homo, non solum, quae contraponi ad appretiationem possit, habens dignitatem ad multitudinem reorum, sed omnibus sententiis supereminentem. In hoc quidem quod filius erat, id quod incommutabilis est ad patrem conseruans; in hoc autem quod conditor, id quod uirtutis est indeficienter habens; in hoc quod amans misereri, ea quae compassionis sunt sine ulla publicans collatione; in id denique quod sacerdos est, id quod ad repraesentationem erat idoneum offerens: quorum nihil simile inueniet quis, aut uicinum aliquando in aliquo.
14. ὅρα γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν· ἑκὼν κατακριθεὶς τὸν κατὰ τῶν σταυρωσάντων ἔλυσεν θάνατον καὶ ἀπέστρεψεν τὴν τῶν ἀποκτεινάντων ἀνομίαν εἰς τὴν τῶν ἀνομησάντων σωτηρίαν. 14. Behold his love of mankind! Freely accepting condemnation, he destroyed the death due those who crucified him, and he turned the transgression of those who killed him into the salvation of the transgressors. 14. Attende enim eius in homines amorem. Voluntarie adiudicatus morti, eam quae contra crucifigentes erat, dissoluit mortem, et conuertit perimentium se iniquitatem in iniquorum salutem.
15. Ἀνθρώπου τοίνυν ψιλοῦ τὸ σῶσαι οὐκ ἦν· καὶ γὰρ αὐτὸς ἐδεῖτο τοῦ σῴζοντος κατὰ Παῦλον τὸν λέγοντα “Πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον.” ἡ ἁμαρτία τῷ διαβόλῳ προσῆγεν, ὁ διάβολος τῷ θανάτῳ παρέπεμπεν, ἐν μεγίστῳ κινδύνῳ τὰ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς προῆγεν, ὑπῆρχεν ἐν ἀπόροις ἡ λύσις, … 15. A mere man could not save; for he would have needed a savior for himself, since, as Paul said, “All have sinned” [Rom. 3:23]. By sin we were delivered to the devil, and by the devil handed over to death. Our situation was in extreme danger; there was no path to recovery. 15. Hominis igitur puri saluare non erat, etenim ipse etiam indigebat saluatore, secundum Paulum dicentem: “Omnes enim peccauerunt, et egent gloria dei.” Quia uero peccatum diabolo reum tradebat hominem, diabolus traditum in mortem agebat: in magno periculo ea quae circa nos sunt, errant, impossibilisque erat solutio mortis.
16. οἱ πεμφθέντες ἰατροὶ κατηγόρουν. τί οὖν; ὡς εἶδον οἱ προφῆται κρεῖττον τέχνης ἀνθρωπείας τὸ τραῦμα, τὸν ἐξ οὐρανῶν ἐπεβόων ἰατρόν. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἔλεγεν “Κλῖνον οὐρανούς σου καὶ κατάβηθι·” ἄλλος “Ἴασαι με, κύριε, καὶ ἰαθήσομαι·” ἕτερος “Ἐξέγειρον τὴν δυναστείαν σου καὶ ἐλθὲ εἰς τὸ σῶσαι ἡμᾶς·” ἄλλος “Εἰ ὄντως κατοικήσει θεὸς μετὰ ἀνθρώπων;” ἄλλος “Ταχὺ προκαταλαβέτωσαν ἡμᾶς οἱ οἰκτιρμοί σου, κύριε, ὅτι ἐπτωχεύσαμεν σφόδρα·” ἕτερος “Οἴμοι ψυχή, ὅτι ἀπόλωλεν εὐλαβὴς ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὁ κατορθῶν ἐν ἀνθρώποις οὐχ ὑπάρχει·” ἄλλος “Ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὴν βοήθειάν μου πρόσχες, κύριε, εἰς τὸ βοηθῆσαί μοι σπεῦσον·” ἄλλος “Ὅσον ὅσον ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἥξει καὶ οὐ χρονιεῖ·” ἄλλος “Ἐπλανήθην ὡς πρόβατον ἀπολωλός· ζήτησον τὸν δοῦλόν σου” τὸν ἐλπίζοντα ἐπὶ σέ· ἄλλος· “Ὁ θεὸς ἐμφανῶς ἥξει, ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν, καὶ οὐ παρασιωπήσεται.” 16. That was the verdict of the doctors who were sent to us. What happened then? When the prophets saw that our wounds went beyond what humans could cure, they cried out to the heavenly physician. “Bow your heavens and come down” [Ps. 144:5], says one; another, “Heal me, O Lord, and I will be healed” [Jer. 17:14]; another, “Rouse your might, and come to save us!” [Ps. 80:2]; another, “Will God really live with men?” [2 Chr. 6:18]; another, “Let your mercies come quickly to us, O Lord, for we are in total poverty” [Ps. 79:8]; another, “Woe, my soul, for the godly man has perished from the earth, and there are none who are upright among mankind” [Mic. 7:1-2]; another, “O God, come to my help; O Lord, hurry to help me” [Ps 70:1]; another, “Yet a little while and the coming one will arrive and will not delay” [Hab. 2:3]; another, “I have gone astray like a lost sheep; seek your servant” [Ps. 119:176], who hopes in you; another, “God, our God, will come openly and will not be silent” [Ps. 50:3]. 16. Qui missi sunt medici, accusabant; quid igitur? Cum uiderent prophetae ultra humanam artem uulnus esse, ad coelestem medicum clamabant: et hic quidem dicebat: “Domine, inclina coelos tua, et descende.” Alius: “Sana me, domine, et sanabor.” Alius clamabat: “Excita potentiam tuam, et ueni, ut liberes nos.” […] Alius dicebat: “Heu me! Anima me, quia periit misericors a terra.” Alius dicebat: “Si uere deus habitauit cum hominibus.” Alter: “Cito apprehendat nos misericordia tua, domine.” Iter alter: “Deus, in adiutorium meum intende, domine, ad adiuuandum me festina.” Alter: “Qui uenturus est ueniet, et non tardabit.” Alius: “Erraui sicut ouis quae perierat; require seruum tuum.” […]4
17. οὐ περιεῖδεν τοίνυν ἐπὶ πολὺ τὴν φύσιν τυραννουμένην ὁ φύσει βασιλεύς, οὐκ ἀφῆκεν εἰς τέλος εἶναι τῷ διαβόλῳ ὑπεύθυνον ὁ φιλοικτίρμων θεός, ἀλλ᾽ ἦλθεν ὁ ἀεὶ παρὼν καὶ κατέβαλεν λύτρον τὸ οἰκεῖον αἷμα καὶ ἔδωκεν ὑπὲρ τοῦ γένους ἀντάλλαγμα τῷ θανάτῳ ὃ ἐκ παρθένου ἐφόρεσεν σῶμα, καὶ ἐξηγοράσατο τὸν κόσμον ἐκ τῆς τοῦ νόμου κατάρας θανάτῳ τὸν θάνατον καταργήσας καὶ βοᾷ Παῦλος “Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου.” 17. So he who was king by nature did not allow our nature to remain under tyranny indefinitely. The merciful God did not permit us to remain subject to the devil right to the end. He who was always present arrived. He paid his own blood as ransom. In exchange for mankind he gave death the body that came out of the virgin. And he redeemed the world from the curse of the law, wiping out death with his own death, as Paul shouts out: “Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law” [Gal. 3:13]. 17. Non despexit igitur humanae naturae oppressionem, qui natura exstat rex et deus; sed uenit qui semper aderat, et exsoluit redemptionem proprium sanguinem, et dedit pro genere humano compensationem morti, quod ex uirgine indutus est corpus, et redemit mundum ex maledicto legis; unde clamat Paulus: “Christus nos redemit de maledicto legis.”
18. Ὁ τοίνυν ἀγοράσας οὐ ψιλὸς ἄνθρωπος, ὦ Ἰουδαῖε· ἡ γὰρ τῶν ἀνθρώπων φύσις τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ δεδούλωτο. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ θεὸς γυμνὸς ἀνθρωπότητος· σῶμα γὰρ εἶχεν, ὦ Μανιχαῖε· εἰ μὴ γὰρ ἐνεδύσατο ἐμέ, οὐκ ἂν ἔσωσεν ἐμέ. ἀλλ᾽ ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ τῆς παρθένου ὁ ἀποφηνάμενος τὸν κατάδικον ἐνεδύσατο καὶ ἐκεῖ τὸ φρικτὸν γέγονεν συνάλλαγμα. δοὺς γὰρ πνεῦμα ἔλαβεν σάρκα· ὁ αὐτὸς μετὰ τῆς παρθένου καὶ ἐκ τῆς παρθένου· ᾧ μὲν “ἐπεσκίασεν,” μετ᾽ αὐτῆς· ᾧ δὲ ἐσαρκώθη, ἐξ αὐτῆς. 18. So he who bought us was no mere man, you Jew! For mankind’s nature was enslaved to sin. But neither was he God without humanity. For he had a body, you Manichaean! If he had not clothed himself in me, he would not have saved me. On the contrary, when he appeared in the virgin’s womb he clothed himself in him who was condemned; and there it was that the wondrous contract came to be. He gave spirit and took flesh. The same one was both with the virgin and of the virgin; by his “overshadowing” [Luke 1:35], he was with her; by becoming incarnate, he was of her. 18. Qui igitur redemit nos, non purus homo, o Iudaee: hominum enim natura peccato seruiebat; sed nec deus nudus, corpus enim habebat, o Manichaee, nisi enim me indutus esset, me non saluasset; sed qui in utero uirginis sententiam tulerat, indutus est reum, et ibi terribilis facta est commutatio: dans enim spiritum accepit carnem, idem ipse cum uirgine et ex uirgine; et spiritus quidem “obumbrauit” eam, ipse uero ex ea caro factus est.
19. εἰ ἄλλος ὁ Χριστὸς καὶ ἄλλος ὁ θεὸς λόγος, οὐκέτι τριάς, ἀλλὰ τετράς. μὴ σχίσῃς τὸν τῆς οἰκονομίας χιτῶνα “τὸν ἄνωθεν ὑφαντόν·” μὴ μαθητεύσῃς Ἀρείῳ. ἀσεβῶς ἐκεῖνος τὴν οὐσίαν τέμνει· σὺ τὴν ἕνωσιν μὴ μέριζε, ἵνα μὴ μερισθῇς ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ. 19. If Christ is one person and God the Word another, then there is no longer a Trinity, but a ‘quaternity.’ Do not tear apart the robe of God’s divine plan which was “woven from above” [John 19:23]. Do not be a disciple of Arius; in his impiety, he divided the divine essence. You must not separate this union, or else you will be separated from God. 19. Si alter Christus et alter deus uerbum, non iam trinitas, sed quaternitas erit. Non disrumpas dispensationis tunicam, quae “desuper contexta est,” non sis discipulus Arii; impie ille essentiam diuidit, tu unitatem ne partiaris, ut non diuidaris a deo.
20. τίς “ἐπέφανεν τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις;” ἄνθρωπος; καὶ πῶς; ὅς γε ἐν σκότει διῆγεν κατὰ Παῦλον τὸν λέγοντα “Ὃς ἐρρύσατο ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ σκότους” καὶ πάλιν “Ἦτε γάρ ποτε σκότος.” τίς οὖν ἐπέφανεν; Δαυίδ σε διδάσκει λέγων “Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου.” 20. Who was it that “shone down upon those sitting in darkness and in the shadow of death”? [Luke 1:79]. A man? But how? For men lived in darkness, as Paul says: “He has rescued us from the power of darkness” [Col. 1:13], and again: “You were once darkness” [Eph. 5:8]. Then who was it who shone down? David teaches you when he says, “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!” [Ps. 118:26]. 20. Dic age, quis “apparuit in tenebris et in umbra mortis sedentibus”? Homo? Et quomodo, si in tenebris degebat, secundum Paulum dicentem: “Qui eripuit nos ex potestate tenebrarum;” et iterum: “Eratis enim aliquando tenebrae.” Quis ergo illuxit? Dauid te doceat dicens: [“Benedictus qui uenit in nomine domini.”]
εἰπὲ φανερῶς, ὦ Δαυίδ, “Ἀναβόησον τῇ ἰσχύι καὶ μὴ φείσῃ· ὡς σάλπιγγα ὕψωσον τὴν φωνήν σου,” εἰπὲ τίς οὗτος; κύριος ὁ θεὸς τῶν δυνάμεων· “Θεὸς κύριος, καὶ ἐπέφανεν ἡμῖν.”5 συνῆλθον αἱ φύσεις καὶ ἀσύγχυτος ἔμεινεν ἡ ἕνωσις. Tell us plainly, David— “Cry out loudly and do not be shy; lift up your voice like a trumpet” [Is. 58:1]—and tell us who this is. The Lord, the God of hosts! “The Lord is God, and he has shone down upon us!” [Ps. 118:27]. For the natures came together and the union remained unconfused. [Quis est iste? Dic aperte, o Dauid:] […] “Deus dominus, et illuxit nobis;” conuenerunt naturae, et inconfusa permansit unitas.
21. Ἦλθεν σῶσαι, ἀλλ᾽ ἐχρῆν καὶ παθεῖν. πῶς ἦν δυνατὸν ἑκάτερα; ἄνθρωπος ψιλὸς σῶσαι οὐκ ἴσχυεν· θεὸς γυμνὸς παθεῖν οὐκ ἠδύνατο. τί οὖν; αὐτὸς ὢν θεὸς, ὁ Ἐμμανουὴλ, γέγονεν ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ᾧ μὲν ἦν, ἔσωσεν, ᾧ δὲ γέγονεν, ἔπαθεν. 21. He came to save, but it was also necessary for him to suffer. How were both possible? Mere man had no power to save. One who was solely God was not able to suffer. So what happened? He who was God, the Emmanuel, became man. Through that which he was, he saved; and through that which he became, he suffered. 21. Venit saluare, sed oportebat et pati: quomodo ergo poterant utraque fieri? Homo purus saluare non ualebat, deus nudus pati non poterat, ipse existens deus natura, factus est homo, et eo quod quidem erat saluauit; eo autem quod factus est, pertulit.
22. διὰ τοῦτο ὡς εἶδεν ἡ ἐκκλησία στεφανώσασαν αὐτὸν ταῖς ἀκάνθαις τὴν συναγωγήν, θρηνοῦσα τὴν τόλμαν ἔλεγεν· “Θυγατέρες Ἱερουσαλήμ, ἐξέλθατε καὶ ἴδετε τὸν στέφανον, ᾧ ἐστεφάνωσεν αὐτὸν ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ.” αὐτὸς γὰρ καὶ τὸν ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐφόρεσεν στέφανον καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀκανθῶν ἔλυσεν ἀπόφασιν. ὁ αὐτὸς ἐν κόλποις πατρὸς καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ παρθένου, ἐν ἀγκάλαις μητρὸς καὶ “ἐπὶ πτερύγων ἀνέμων,” ὑπ’ ἀγγέλων προσεκυνεῖτο καὶ “τελώναις συνανέκειτο·” τὰ σεραφὶμ οὐ προσέβλεπεν καὶ Πιλάτος ἠρώτα· ὁ δοῦλος ἐράπιζεν καὶ ἡ κτίσις ἔφριττεν. ἐπὶ σταυροῦ ἐπήγνυτο καὶ ὁ θρόνος οὐκ ἐγυμνοῦτο· ἐν τάφῳ κατεκλείετο καὶ “τὸν οὐρανὸν ἐξέτεινεν ὡσεὶ δέρριν·” ἐν νεκροῖς ἐλογίζετο καὶ τὸν ᾅδην ἐσκύλευεν. κάτω πλάνος ἐσυκοφαντεῖτο καὶ ἄνω ἅγιος ἐδοξολογεῖτο. ὢ τοῦ μυστηρίου· … 22. For this reason, when the church saw the synagogue crowning him with thorns, she lamented the outrage in these words: “Daughters of Jerusalem, go out and look at the crown with which his mother crowned him” [Song of S. 3:10-11]. For he both wore the crown of thorns and undid the sentence of the thorns. For the same one was in the Father’s bosom and in the virgin’s womb, in his mother’s arms and on the “wings of the wind” [Ps. 104:3], adored by angels and “eating with tax collectors” [Matt. 9:10]. Seraphim would not look at him, and Pilate interrogated him. A servant struck him, and creation trembled. He was nailed to a cross, but he did not leave his throne; while enclosed within the tomb, he was “stretching out the heavens like an awning” [Ps. 104:2]; while counted among the dead, he was plundering hell. Below he was accused as a deceiver; above he was glorified as the Holy One. What a mystery! 22. Propterea quando uidit ecclesia coronasse eum spinis synagogam, deplorans praesumptionem dicebat: “Filiae Ierusalem, exite et uidete coronam, qua coronauit eum mater sua;” ipse enim ex spinis coronam portauit, ut spinarum sententiam dissolueret; ipse in sinu patris et in uentre uirginis, inter ulnas matris et “super pennas uentorum:” sursum ab angelis adorabatur, et “deorsum cum telonibus recumbebat:” seraphim non prospiciebant prae reuerentia, et Pilatus interrogabat: seruus percutiebat, et creatura tenebatur: in cruce figebatur, et thronus gloriae nudus non erat: in sepulcro iacebat, et “coelum extendebat, sicut pellem:” inter mortuos reputabatur, et infernum spoliabat: deorsum quasi seductor calumniabatur, et sursum a sanctis glorificabatur. O stupendum mysterium!
35. βλέπω τὰ θαύματα καὶ ἀνακηρύττω τὴν θεότητα· ὁρῶ τὰ πάθη καὶ οὐκ ἀρνοῦμαι τὴν ἀνθρωπότητα, ἀλλ᾽ ὁ Ἐμμανουὴλ φύσεως μὲν πύλας ἀνέῳξεν ὡς ἄνθρωπος, παρθενίας δὲ κλεῖθρα οὐ διέρρηξεν ὡς θεός, ἀλλ᾽ οὕτως ἐκ μήτρας ἐξῆλθεν, ὡς δι᾽ ἀκοῆς εἰσῆλθεν· οὕτως ἐτέχθη, ὡς συνελήφθη. ἀπαθῶς εἰσῆλθεν, ἀφράστως ἐξῆλθεν κατὰ τὸν προφήτην Ἰεζεκιὴλ τὸν λέγοντα· “Ἐπέστρεψέν με,” φησί, “κύριος κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν τῆς πύλης τῶν ἁγίων τῆς ἐξωτέρας τῆς βλεπούσης κατὰ ἀνατολάς, καὶ αὕτη ἦν κεκλεισμένη. καὶ εἶπεν κύριος πρός με· υἱὲ ἀνθρώπου, ἡ πύλη αὕτη κεκλεισμένη ἔσται, οὐκ ἀνοιχθήσεται. οὐδεὶς οὐ μὴ διέλθῃ δι᾽ αὐτῆς, ἀλλ᾽ ἢ κύριος ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, μόνος αὐτὸς εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται, καὶ ἔσται ἡ πύλη κεκλεισμένη.” 35. I see his miracles and I proclaim his divinity; I see his sufferings and I cannot deny his humanity; yet while Emmanuel was opening the gates of human nature as a man, as God he left the bolts of virginity’s door intact. Although he entered through the ear, he came out from the womb. In the same way in which he was conceived, so he was born. As he was beyond human passions when he went in, so he was beyond human understanding when he came out—as the prophet Ezekiel said: “The Lord brought me back along the road of the outer gate of the sanctuary, which faces east; and it was closed. And the Lord said to me, ‘Son of man, this gate will remain closed; it will not be opened. No one will pass through it, but the Lord, the God of Israel, he alone will go in and come out, and the gate will remain shut’” [Ezek. 44:1-2]. 35. Video miracula, et praedico deitatem: aspicio passiones, et non abnego humanitatem; sed Emmanuel naturae quidem portas aperuit, ut homo; uirginale autem claustrum non disrupit, ut deus; sed sic ex uulua egressus est, quomodo per auditum ingressus est. Sic natus est, quomodo conceptus; impatibiliter introiit, incorruptibiliter egressus est secundum prophetam Ezechiel dicentem: “Conuertit me dominus ad uiam portae sanctuarii exteriorem, quae attendit ad orientem, et haec clausa erat. Et dixit dominus ad me: Fili hominis, porta ista clausa erit, et non aperietur: nullus transibit per eam, sed solus dominus deus ingredietur, et erit clausa.”
34. ἰδοὺ ἀπόδειξις ἐναργὴς τῆς ἁγίας καὶ θεοτόκου Μαρίας· λελύσθω λοιπὸν ἀντιλογία πᾶσα, καὶ τῇ τῶν γραφῶν φωτιζώμεθα διδασκαλίᾳ, ἵνα καὶ βασιλείας οὐρανῶν τύχωμεν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν, αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν. 34. Listen to that clear testimony to holy, God-bearing6 Mary. Let all opposition now cease and let us be enlightened by the teaching of the scriptures, so that we may attain the kingdom of heaven in Christ Jesus our Lord. To him be glory forever and ever. Amen. 34. Ecce approbatio manifesta sanctae genitricis dei Mariae, dissoluatur deinceps omnis contradictio, et sanctarum scripturarum illuminemur doctrina, ut coelorum regnum obtineamus in Christo Iesu domino nostro, ipsi gloria in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

  1. The sermon is not dated in the manuscripts, but it is obviously preached on a day celebrating the role of Mary in God’s plan of salvation. Most scholars favor December 24 as the day, and 428 as the year.
  2. N. Constas. 2003. Proclus of Constantinople and the Cult of the Virgin in Late Antiquity: Homilies 1-5, Texts and Translations (Leiden; Boston: Brill).
  3. One of the attributes of God that was stressed in the early church was his “impassibility,” that is, that by nature he was beyond the realm of experiencing feelings or sufferings, things associated only with the human world.
  4. In addition to the two apparent lacunae, the passages are quoted in a different order than the Greek text.
  5. Some mss. add here: ὁ γὰρ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο; “For the Word became flesh.”
  6. Here the term is used that will become so controversial, “theotokos,” God-bearing,

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